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Refractive Errors

Myopia 近视眼

  • Does your child have problem seeing far? Myopia is the medical term for short sightedness. It is a visual defect in which images are focused in front of the retina rather than on it. This is due to excessive elongation of the eye globe in relation to the curvature of the cornea.
  • Singapore has the highest prevalence of myopia in the world. The Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors of Myopia (SCORM) states that the prevalence of myopia in Singapore children was 27.8% at 7 years old, 34.5% at 8 years old and 43.4% at 9 years old. Myopia usually develops and progresses in childhood, but stabilizes when one enters adulthood. Find out more.
  • The cause of myopia is not clearly known. However, environmental factors and genetics seem to play a part. For example, the risk of a child developing myopia is higher if one or both parents have myopia, while excessive near work such as reading may also contribute to the development of myopia.

There are many claims to stop myopia progression or even “cure” myopia in children. It is recommended for a child to have a proper eye check to understand the visual status and then discuss the best approach to appropriate eye care options which are guided by updated and proven research results.

At EyeCare@Duxton, we believe that good vision is important especially to a growing child. Early detection of vision abnormalities is crucial in a child’s rapidly growing visual system. For example, the detection of lazy eyes in a child is crucial as the treatment is more simple and prognosis is excellent when diagnosed and treated early. However past a certain age of around 8 years old, lazy eyes can be difficult to treat despite exhausting all treatment options.

Optometrists at EyeCare@Duxton are experienced in vision check for young children of all ages. If there is any doubts about your child’s vision, please feel free to drop by for a friendly consultation today!

Presbyopia 老花眼

  • Are you having frequent eye strain or trouble reading the small prints on your mobile phone or computer screen? Presbyopia, also known as ‘Lao Hua Yan’ 老花眼, is a normal ageing process of the eye. The lens in our eye, gradually loses its ‘auto-focus function’ when we hit 40 years of age or even earlier for some people.
  • There are many different ways of correcting presbyopia, such as adjusting with mono-vision glasses, using progressive or bifocal glasses, near distance reading or computer glasses and also progressive soft contact lens.
  • Accurate diagnosis and appropriate correction of presbyopia not only improves near vision ability, it also relieves eye strain and improves quality of life.
  • EyeCare@Duxton has a wide selection of frames and lens to suit the early beginning stage of presbyopia up to the advance stages of presbyopia.

Astigmatism 散光

  • Astigmatism also known as 散光, occurs when the surface of the cornea or the lens inside the eye has a different curvature in one direction than the other. In the case of the cornea, instead of having a round shape like a basketball, the surface of the cornea is more like a rugby ball. As a result, the eye is unable to focus light rays to a single point causing vision to be out of focus.
  • In an eye with astigmatism, since light fails to come to a single focus on the retina to produce clear vision and instead, multiple focus points occur. Thus a person with astigmatism sees an object with shadows or distortions.
  • Like nearsightedness and farsightedness, astigmatism is a refractive error, meaning it is not an eye health problem; it simply is a problem with how the eye focuses light. It often occurs together with long-sightedness or short-sightedness.
  • Astigmatism is thought to be hereditary and usually presents from birth although the exact cause is not known.
  • Small amounts of astigmatism is common and may not need any correction however a refraction eye check is important as a baseline measurement to record and moniter any progression of astigmatism. Higher amounts of astigmatism may be disturbing and can cause poor quality of vision and uncorrected astigmatism in children may lead to lazy eyes.
  • Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lens or even surgical methods such as LASIK surgery.


Common Eye Conditions

Glaucoma 青光眼

  • Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease that results in damage to the optic nerve. Because the optic nerve transmits information from your eye to your brain, glaucoma can result in a gradual, irreversible loss of vision. If left undiagnosed and untreated, it can eventually cause blindness.
  • There are several different types of glaucoma, but the main reason for developing glaucoma is abnormal pressure in the eye. This abnormal pressure is commonly due to excessive production of fluid in the eye or slow drainage of fluid out of the eye. Glaucoma is usually painless and has virtually no symptoms, until irreversible damage has occurred. That’s why it’s called “the silent thief of sight”.
  • Risk factors of glaucoma: Family history of glaucoma, injury to the eye, prolonged use of steroidal medication, poor control of chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Early detection and treatment of glaucoma can slow down the progression of disease and thus retain precious vision and visual fields. Regular follow up with an ophthalmologist is crucial to keep track of the progression of glaucoma and tailor the treatment accordingly.


Cataract 白内障

What are cataracts?
  • A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens.
  • Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss in people from age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world.
  • There are many types of cataracts which usually is named so because of the location of the clouding of the lens, or sometimes named due to the cause of the cataract. For example a the most common type of cataract - nuclear cataract forms deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging. Some cataracts are present at birth for example, congenital cataract.
Treatment of Cataracts
  • Early cataracts with minimal visual disturbances can be monitored regularly by updating spectacles prescription for possible vision changes and protecting eyes from UV rays. Moderate to advanced cataracts need surgical intervention where the natural lens in the eye is replaced with an artificial lens implant. The ophthalmologist will discuss and advise on the procedure and risks, type of lens implant suitability and the expected outcomes.
What Causes Cataracts?
  • The lens in our eyes is mostly made of water and protein that is arranged in a precise way which keeps the lens clear and lets light pass through it.
  • But as we age, some of the protein may clump together and this disorganization will cloud a small area of the lens. This is a cataract. Over time, the protein become more disorganized and this will cause more clouding of the lens, making it harder to see.
  • Besides advancing age, cataract risk factors include:
    • UV rays exposure
    • Systemic health conditions: Diabetes, hypertension, Obesity,
    • Excessive smoking and alcohol intake
    • Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
    • Previous eye injury or inflammation
    • Previous eye surgery
    • Family history
Cataract Prevention
Although cataract development cannot be totally prevented, some strategies can help to delay the onset and progression of cataracts.
  • Protect your eyes from UV rays.
    - Chose good quality contact lens, spectacle lens and sunglasses with UV protection.
    - Wear wide brimmed hats or caps and use umbrellas especially under prolonged strong UV exposure.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle.
    - Quit smoking and do not consume alcohol excessively.
    - Have regular health checks and seek doctors advice on health issues: do not self-medicate.
    - Maintain a healthy BMI with regular exercises, balanced diet and sufficient rest.
    - Some studies show that food rich in vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants delay the onset of cataracts.


Diabetic Retinopathy 糖尿病视网膜病变

  • Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in developed countries.
  • It occurs when high levels of glucose in blood damages the blood vessels in the eye which causes swelling, bleeding and scar tissue formation.
  • Treatment with laser is sometimes needed to stop further bleeding.
  • The risk of diabetic retinopathy increases with the duration of diabetes however, if glucose levels are well-controlled then the risk of diabetic retinopathy is reduced.